Function to change ownership of the www folder

Just another snippet of code that can be implemented somewhere:

set-perms.sh
#!/bin/bash

# Function to change ownership of the www folder
change_ownership() {
    sudo chown -R "$1":www-data /var/www
    echo "Ownership of the www folder has been set to $1:www-data."
}

# Loop until a valid username is provided
while true; do
    # Prompt the user to enter the desired username
    read -p "Enter the username for permissions: " username

    # Check if the username provided exists
    if id "$username" &>/dev/null; then
        change_ownership "$username"
        break  # Exit the loop if a valid username is provided
    else
        echo "Error: User $username does not exist."
    fi
done

echo "done!"

To make the script executable:

sudo chmod +x set-perms.sh

and run it with

sudo ./set-perms.sh

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Setting up an automated mySQL / MariaDB backup schedule

Just digging deeper in automating thing, so I made two scripts:

backup_cron.sh
#!/bin/bash

# Define the path to the backup script
BACKUP_SCRIPT="/backup_mysql.sh"

# Define the cron job command to run the backup script once a week (every Sunday at midnight)
CRON_COMMAND="0 0 * * 0 $BACKUP_SCRIPT"

# Add the cron job to the crontab
(crontab -l 2>/dev/null; echo "$CRON_COMMAND") | crontab -

echo "Backup cron job set up successfully."

And the script that executes the backup every Sunday:

backup_mysql.sh
#!/bin/bash

# Define the directory where backup files will be stored
BACKUP_DIR="/var/backups/mysql"

# Ensure the backup directory exists
mkdir -p "$BACKUP_DIR"

# Define the filename for the backup file (include date in the filename)
BACKUP_FILE="$BACKUP_DIR/mysql_backup_$(date +%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S).sql"

# Define the compressed filename
COMPRESSED_FILE="$BACKUP_FILE.gz"

# Define MySQL username and password (replace with your MySQL credentials)
DB_USER="USERNAME"
DB_PASS="PASSWORD"

# Dump all databases into a single SQL file
mysqldump -u "$DB_USER" -p"$DB_PASS" --all-databases > "$BACKUP_FILE"

# Add permissions to the backup file
chmod 600 "$BACKUP_FILE"

# Compress the backup file
gzip "$BACKUP_FILE"

echo "Database backup completed. Backup stored in: $COMPRESSED_FILE"

To make the script executable:

sudo chmod +x backup_cron.sh
sudo chmod +x backup_mysql.sh

and run it with

sudo ./backup_cron.sh

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Revised script for LEMP install with PHP7.4 and PHP8.0

Currently successfully needs more testing on a Debian OS 11.5.0 installation. (I now remember why I didn’t want to touch this stuff any more. But oh well, I may as well completely overhaul this script again. The current one does work, but not well enough for me)

Step-by-step is functioning, will now wipe the server to start from scratch again. Also, the previous article will now be deleted.

Note:
If you are using this on a fresh Debian install, SUDO might not have been installed, nor has the user (so not the root) been add to SUDO. This is how you do that if you are logged in as user:

su -
apt update
apt install sudo
usermod -aG sudo <username>
exit
exit

You need to exit twice so you log out as root and as user. After that, you need to log back in as user so you can start using sudo from now on.


Let’s begin! You can name the script something like

setup.sh
#!/bin/bash

# Update system
sudo apt update
sudo apt upgrade -y

# Install necessary packages
sudo apt install gnupg nginx mariadb-server php7.4-fpm php7.4-mysql php7.4-curl php7.4-gd php7.4-mbstring php7.4-xml php7.4-zip ssh ufw nano fail2ban curl wget sudo openssl net-tools unzip -y

# Add repository key for PHP 8.0
sudo apt install software-properties-common -y
sudo wget -O /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/php.gpg https://packages.sury.org/php/apt.gpg

# Add repository for PHP 8.0
echo "deb https://packages.sury.org/php/ $(lsb_release -sc) main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/php.list
sudo apt update

# Install PHP 8.0 and extensions
sudo apt install php8.0-fpm php8.0-mysql php8.0-curl php8.0-gd php8.0-mbstring php8.0-xml php8.0-zip -y

# Configure UFW to allow web traffic and SSH
sudo ufw allow OpenSSH
sudo ufw allow 'Nginx Full'
sudo ufw allow 3306/tcp

# Enable UFW
sudo ufw enable

# Configure automatic security updates
echo 'APT::Periodic::Update-Package-Lists "1";' | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/10periodic
echo 'APT::Periodic::Download-Upgradeable-Packages "1";' | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/10periodic
echo 'APT::Periodic::AutocleanInterval "7";' | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/10periodic
echo 'APT::Periodic::Unattended-Upgrade "1";' | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/20auto-upgrades

# Disable root login via SSH
sudo sed -i 's/#PermitRootLogin prohibit-password/PermitRootLogin no/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
sudo systemctl restart sshd

# Generate SSH key pairs
ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096

# Configure Nginx
sudo systemctl start nginx
sudo systemctl enable nginx

# Configure PHP 7.4
sudo systemctl start php7.4-fpm
sudo systemctl enable php7.4-fpm

# Configure PHP 8.0
sudo systemctl start php8.0-fpm
sudo systemctl enable php8.0-fpm

# Configure MariaDB
sudo mysql_secure_installation

# Allow Nginx to use PHP
sudo sed -i 's/;cgi.fix_pathinfo=1/cgi.fix_pathinfo=0/' /etc/php/7.4/fpm/php.ini
sudo sed -i 's/;cgi.fix_pathinfo=1/cgi.fix_pathinfo=0/' /etc/php/8.0/fpm/php.ini

# Restart Nginx and PHP services
sudo systemctl restart nginx
sudo systemctl restart php7.4-fpm
sudo systemctl restart php8.0-fpm

# Create a temporary file to store server and PHP info
tmpfile=$(mktemp)

# Get server info
uname -a > "$tmpfile"

# Get PHP version
php -v >> "$tmpfile"

# Append server and PHP info to index.html
cat "$tmpfile" | sudo tee /var/www/html/index.html >/dev/null

# Remove temporary file
rm "$tmpfile"

# Install adminer 
sudo apt install adminer -y
sudo ln -s /usr/share/adminer/adminer.php /var/www/html/adminer.php
sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /usr/share/adminer /var/www/html/adminer.php

# Set the permissions correct for www
sudo chmod g+w /var/www
sudo chown -R :www-data www
sudo chmod g+s www

change_ownership() {
    sudo chown -R "$1":www-data /var/www
    echo "Ownership of the www folder has been set to $1:www-data."
}

# Loop until a valid username is provided
while true; do
    # Prompt the user to enter the desired username
    read -p "Enter the username for permissions: " username

    # Check if the username provided exists
    if id "$username" &>/dev/null; then
        change_ownership "$username"
        break  # Exit the loop if a valid username is provided
    else
        echo "Error: User $username does not exist."
    fi
done
echo "LEMP setup completed successfully."
echo "Check if Adminer is working by opening a browser, and entering http://IP_address/adminer.php in the address bar"

To make the script executable:

sudo chmod +x setup.sh

and run it with

sudo ./setup.sh

When things like PHP fail to work (becuase y’know… PHP)
These are the files that have to look this way to make PHP happen.

sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/default
##
# You should look at the following URL's in order to grasp a solid understanding
# of Nginx configuration files in order to fully unleash the power of Nginx.
# https://www.nginx.com/resources/wiki/start/
# https://www.nginx.com/resources/wiki/start/topics/tutorials/config_pitfalls/
# https://wiki.debian.org/Nginx/DirectoryStructure
#
# In most cases, administrators will remove this file from sites-enabled/ and
# leave it as reference inside of sites-available where it will continue to be
# updated by the nginx packaging team.
#
# This file will automatically load configuration files provided by other
# applications, such as Drupal or WordPress. These applications will be made
# available underneath a path with that package name, such as /drupal8.
#
# Please see /usr/share/doc/nginx-doc/examples/ for more detailed examples.
##

# Default server configuration
#
server {
    listen 80 default_server;
    listen [::]:80 default_server;

    # SSL configuration
    #
    # listen 443 ssl default_server;
    # listen [::]:443 ssl default_server;
    #
    # Note: You should disable gzip for SSL traffic.
    # See: https://bugs.debian.org/773332
    #
    # Read up on ssl_ciphers to ensure a secure configuration.
    # See: https://bugs.debian.org/765782
    #
    # Self signed certs generated by the ssl-cert package
    # Don't use them in a production server!
    #
    # include snippets/snakeoil.conf;

    root /var/www/html;

    # Add index.php to the list if you are using PHP
    index index.php index.html index.htm index.nginx-debian.html;

    server_name _;

    location / {
        # First attempt to serve request as file, then
        # as directory, then fall back to displaying a 404.
        try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
    }

    # pass PHP scripts to FastCGI server
    #
    location ~ \.php$ {
        include snippets/fastcgi-php.conf;
    
    #	# With php-fpm (or other unix sockets):
        fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php8.0-fpm.sock;
#non-standard addition
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
include fastcgi_params;
}
    #	# With php-cgi (or other tcp sockets):
    #	fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
    #}

    # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
    # concurs with nginx's one
    #
    #location ~ /\.ht {
    #	deny all;
    #}
}


# Virtual Host configuration for example.com
#
# You can move that to a different file under sites-available/ and symlink that
# to sites-enabled/ to enable it.
#
#server {
#	listen 80;
#	listen [::]:80;
#
#	server_name example.com;
#
#	root /var/www/example.com;
#	index index.html;
#
#	location / {
#		try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
#	}
#}
sudo nano /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
user www-data;
worker_processes auto;
pid /run/nginx.pid;
include /etc/nginx/modules-enabled/*.conf;

events {
    worker_connections 768;
    # multi_accept on;
}

http {

    ##
    # Basic Settings
    ##

    sendfile on;
    tcp_nopush on;
    types_hash_max_size 2048;
    # server_tokens off;

    # server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;
    # server_name_in_redirect off;

    include /etc/nginx/mime.types;
    default_type application/octet-stream;

    ##
    # SSL Settings
    ##

    ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3; # Dropping SSLv3, ref: POODLE
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

    ##
    # Logging Settings
    ##

    access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log;
    error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;

    ##
    # Gzip Settings
    ##

    gzip on;

    # gzip_vary on;
    # gzip_proxied any;
    # gzip_comp_level 6;
    # gzip_buffers 16 8k;
    # gzip_http_version 1.1;
    # gzip_types text/plain text/css application/json application/javascript text/xml application/xml application/xml+rss text/javascript;

    ##
    # Virtual Host Configs
    ##

    include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
    include /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/*;

    ##
    # PHP Config
    ##

    # PHP-FPM upstream
    upstream php {
        server unix:/var/run/php/php8.0-fpm.sock; # Adjust the PHP version if necessary
    }


#mail {
#	# See sample authentication script at:
#	# http://wiki.nginx.org/ImapAuthenticateWithApachePhpScript
#
#	# auth_http localhost/auth.php;
#	# pop3_capabilities "TOP" "USER";
#	# imap_capabilities "IMAP4rev1" "UIDPLUS";
#
#	server {
#		listen     localhost:110;
#		protocol   pop3;
#		proxy      on;
#	}
#
#	server {
#		listen     localhost:143;
#		protocol   imap;
#		proxy      on;
#	}
#}
}

And when you enter the following commands, you restart NGINX and PHP FPM and there should be no error message.

sudo systemctl restart nginx

# Adjust the PHP version if necessary. In my case, I want PHP 8.0

sudo systemctl restart php8.0-fpm

Good luck 🙂

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[Fixed] Cannot load from mysql.proc. The table is probably corrupted

Something spoopy was going on in my database. All was working fine, but it kept spewing out the following error:

Cannot load from mysql.proc. The table is probably corrupted

So this was fixed by going into the database terminal and entering:

mysql_upgrade -u root -p

Make sure you have the root/privileged password ready. Depending on how many databases you have and how large they are; it can take a bit of time. Have patience.

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Brutally brief: Create a new database and or user in MYSQL

Log in:

mysql -u root -p

Create a user:

create user 'newuser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

Give them all the power:

grant all privileges on * . * TO 'newuser'@'localhost';

Reload privileges:

flush privileges;

Ditch a user: (Optional)

drop user 'newuser'@'localhost';

Log out:

\q

—————-

Log in:

mysql -u newuser -p

Create a database for the user:

create database db_name;

List databases: (Optional)

show databases;

Ditch database: (Optional)

drop database db_name;

Log out:

\q

Done.

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Unusual balance differences in Invoice Ninja

Probably caused by utilizing the wrong method in an older version, where one had to manually enter the paid amount instead of selecting “mark invoice paid”

Step 1. Check the affected clients and make sure that the actual paid sum is correct, regardless what the “minus” amount says.

Step 2. Make a backup, or find a proper host where you can do an easy roll-back in case you mess up.

Step 3. Open the database of Invoice Ninja and find the “clients” table

Step 4. In the column “Balance” you will see a negative amount. Double-click in that field, enter 0.00 (zero-point-zero-zero) and press enter.

Done

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How to reset Joomla (admin) passwords in MySQL

Oh joy, you lost the admin password. Now what?

If the admin user is still defined, the simplest option is to change the password in the database to a known value. This requires that you have access to the MySQL database using phpMyAdmin.

“what, no hacking?”, I hear you say. No. Again, you need access to the MySQL database by using phpMyAdmin.

  1. Navigate to phpMyAdmin and select the database for the Joomla site in the left-hand drop-down list box. This will show the database tables on the left side of the screen.
  2. Click on the table “jos_users” in the list of tables.
  3. Click on the “Browse” button in the top toolbar.
  4. Find the user whose password you want to change and press the Edit icon for this row. A form will display that allows you to edit the password field.
  5. Copy the following value into the password field and press the Go button.
    d2064d358136996bd22421584a7cb33e:trd7TvKHx6dMeoMmBVxYmg0vuXEA4199
    
  6. At this point, the password should be changed to “secret”.
  7. Log in with this user and password and change the password of this user to a secure value.

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